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防虫网的选购和使用方法

作者: 本站来源: 本站时间:2020-09-10
  防虫网形似窗纱,具有抗拉强度大,抗紫外线、抗热、耐水、耐腐蚀、耐老化等性能,无毒无味,使用寿命一般为4~6年,最高可达10年。它既有遮阳网的优点,又克服了遮阳网的不足之处,值得大力推广。
 
  防虫网的作用
 
  1
 
  防霜冻
 
  果树幼果期和果实成熟期处于低温时节,易造成冷害或冻害。采用防虫网覆盖,既有利于提升网内温湿度,又利用防虫网的隔离防止果面结霜受伤,对预防枇杷幼果期的霜害和柑橘果实成熟期的冷害有十分明显的效果。
 
  2
 
  防病虫
 
  果园和苗圃用防虫网覆盖后,由于阻隔了蚜虫、木虱、吸果夜蛾、食心虫、果蝇类等多种水果害虫的发生传播途径,从而达到防治这些害虫的目的,尤其是可控制蚜虫、木虱等传毒媒介昆虫的为害,对防控柑橘黄龙病、衰退病等病害的蔓延传播,以及防治火龙果、蓝莓果蝇类等发挥重要作用。
 
  3
 
  防落果
 
  果实成熟期正值夏季多暴雨天气,如选用防虫网覆盖,对减轻果实成熟期因暴雨引发的落果,尤其火龙果、蓝莓、杨梅果实成熟期遭遇多雨水年份,对减少其落果作用更为明显。
 
  4
 
  改善温度和光照
 
  覆盖防虫网具有减少光照强度、调节土壤温度及空气温湿度等作用,同时可以减少网室内的降水量,降低网室内的水分蒸发量,减少叶片的蒸腾作用。覆盖防虫网后,空气相对湿度均大于对照,其中雨天湿度最高,但差值最小,增幅最低。网室内的相对湿度提高后,可以减少果树像柑橘叶片的蒸腾作用。水分通过降水和空气相对湿度影响果实品质发育,更有利于果实生长发育时,果实品质佳。
 
  应用范围
 
  1
 
  叶菜防虫网覆盖栽培
 
  叶菜是城乡居民夏秋季喜食用的蔬菜,具有生长快,周期短的特点,但露地生产虫害多,农药污染严重,市民不敢食用。提醒您使用防虫网覆盖栽培可大大减少农药污染。
 
  2
 
  瓜果类防虫网覆盖栽培
 
  瓜果夏秋季易发生病毒病,应用防虫网后,切断了蚜虫传毒途径,减轻病毒病的危害。
 
  3
 
  育苗
 
  每年的6~8月,是秋冬季蔬菜的育苗季节,又是高湿、暴雨、虫害频发期,育苗难度大。使用防虫网后蔬菜出苗率高、成苗率高、秧苗素质好,从而赢得秋冬作物生产的主动权。
 
  防虫网果树上覆盖方式
 
  1
 
  棚式
 
  首先建成棚架,棚架间用卡槽扣紧,把防虫网覆盖在棚架上,地面四周用水泥等压实,大棚正面留门。
 
  2
 
  罩式
 
  直接把防虫网覆盖在果树上,用竹竿支撑,可以单株也可以选择多株同时覆盖,操作简便,减少支出,但是会造成田间操作管理不便,主要适合短期的、季节性防霜冻、防暴雨、防鸟害等,如果实成熟期防霜冻及防果蝇和鸟类为害等。
 
  使用要点
 
  防虫网使用较为简便,但应注意以下几点。
 
  1
 
  必须全期覆盖
 
  防虫网遮光。但又遮光不多,不需日盖夜揭或前盖后揭。应作全程覆盖。两边用砖或土压严实。不给害虫入侵机会,才能达到满意的防虫效果。一般风力情况下可用压网线。如遇5~6级大风,需拉上压网线,以防止大风将网掀开。
 
  2
 
  选择适宜的规格
 
  防虫网的规格主要包括幅宽、孔径、颜色等内容。尤其是孔径,防虫网目数过少,网眼大,起不到应有的防虫效果。目数过多,过网眼小,虽防虫,但通风不良,导致温度偏高,遮光过多,则不利于作物生长。一般宜选用22~24目的防虫网。春秋季节和夏季相比,温度较低,光照较弱,宜选用白色防虫网;夏季为了兼顾遮阳、降温,宜选用黑色或银灰色防虫网;在蚜虫和病毒病发生严重的地区,为了驱避蚜虫、预防病毒病,宜选用银灰色防虫网。
 
  3
 
  综合配套措施
 
  除防虫网覆盖外,再结合抗病虫良种、耐热良种、无公害有机肥、生物农药、无污染水源、微喷微灌等综合配套措施,就可以获得更佳的效果。
 
  4
 
  灭虫处理
 
  种子、土壤、塑料棚或温室骨架、架材等都有可能带有害虫和虫卵。在防虫网覆盖后至种植作物前,一定要对种子、土壤、棚室骨架、架材等进行灭虫处理,这是确保防虫网覆盖栽培效果的关键环节,防止病虫害在网室内大量发生,造成严重损害。还有些农户选择噻虫嗪(阿克泰)+嘧菌酯(阿米西达)+嘉美红利1000倍液淋根灌根,对预防刺吸式口器害虫爆发也起到了很好的效果。
 
  5
 
  选择品种
 
  选择适宜在网室内种植的品种,种植过程中要注意行间距及株间距,适当稀植。果树覆盖遮阳网,土壤要深耕,施入的基肥量如腐熟的农家肥、复合肥要充足。
 
  6
 
  妥善使用、保管
 
  防虫网田间使用结束后,应及时收下,洗净、吹干、卷好,以延长使用寿命。
 
  The insect proof net is shaped like a window screen.It has high tensile strength,UV resistance,heat resistance,water resistance,corrosion resistance and aging resistance.It is non-toxic and tasteless.Its service life is generally 4-6 years,up to 10 years.It not only has the advantages of the sunshade net,but also overcomes the shortcomings of the sunshade net,so it is worth popularizing.
 
  One
 
  Frost prevention
 
  The young fruit stage and fruit maturity stage of fruit trees are in the low temperature season,which is easy to cause chilling injury or freezing injury.The results showed that the application of insect proof net not only improved the temperature and humidity in the net,but also prevented the frost injury on the fruit surface by using the insect proof net,which had a very obvious effect on the prevention of frost damage in the young fruit stage of loquat and the cold injury in the mature stage of citrus fruit.
 
  Two
 
  Pest control
 
  After the orchard and nursery are covered with insect proof nets,the occurrence and transmission routes of aphids,Psylla,Spodoptera,fruit flies and other fruit pests are blocked,so as to achieve the purpose of controlling these pests,especially to control the damage of aphids,wood lice and other vector insects,to prevent and control the spread of Citrus Huanglongbing disease,recession disease and other diseases,and to control pitaya,pitaya,etc Blueberry and Drosophila play an important role.
 
  Three
 
  Fruit drop prevention
 
  The fruit ripening period is in the summer with heavy rain.If the insect proof net is used,it can reduce the fruit drop caused by rainstorm during the fruit ripening period,especially in the rainy years when pitaya,blueberry and bayberry fruit are in the rainy year.
 
  Four
 
  Improve temperature and light
 
  Covering insect proof net can reduce light intensity,adjust soil temperature and air temperature and humidity,reduce precipitation,water evaporation and transpiration of leaves.The results showed that the relative humidity of air was higher than that of the control,and the humidity in rainy days was the highest,but the difference was the smallest,and the increase rate was the lowest.When the relative humidity in the net room was increased,the transpiration of fruit trees like citrus leaves could be reduced.Water affected fruit quality development through precipitation and air relative humidity,which was more conducive to fruit growth and development,and the fruit quality was better.
 
  Scope of application
 
  One
 
  Cultivation of leafy vegetables covered with insect proof net
 
  Leafy vegetables are the favorite vegetables for urban and rural residents in summer and autumn,which have the characteristics of fast growth and short cycle.However,there are many pests and serious pesticide pollution in open field production,so people dare not eat them.We remind you that the use of insect net covering cultivation can greatly reduce pesticide pollution.
 
  Two
 
  Cultivation of melons and fruits covered with insect proof net
 
  In summer and autumn,virus diseases are easy to occur in fruits and melons.After the application of insect prevention net,the transmission route of aphids is cut off to reduce the harm of virus diseases.
 
  Three
 
  grow seedlings
 
  From June to August every year,it is the growing season of autumn and winter vegetables.It is also the period of high humidity,rainstorm and frequent occurrence of pests,so it is difficult to raise seedlings.The results showed that the emergence rate of vegetables was high,the seedling rate was high,and the seedling quality was good after using the pest control net,so as to win the initiative of autumn and winter crop production.
 
  Covering methods of insect proof net on fruit trees
 
  One
 
  Shed type
 
  First of all,the scaffolding is built.The scaffolds are fastened with a slot.The insect proof net is covered on the trellis.The ground is compacted with cement and other materials.The front of the shed is left with a door.
 
  Two
 
  Hood style
 
  It is easy to operate and reduce expenses,but it will cause inconvenience in field operation and management.It is mainly suitable for short-term,seasonal frost prevention,rainstorm prevention,bird damage prevention,etc.,if the mature stage frost prevention,fruit fly and bird damage are prevented.
 
  Key points of use
 
  However,the following points should be paid attention to.
 
  One
 
  It must be covered all the time
 
  Insect proof net for shading.However,it does not need to cover day and night or cover before and after.It should cover the whole process.Both sides are compacted with brick or soil.If the pest is not allowed to invade,the satisfactory control effect can be achieved.In general,the pressure wire can be used in wind condition.In case of 5~6 strong wind,it is necessary to pull up the wire to prevent the net from being lifted by the strong wind.
 
  Two
 
  Choose the right size
 
  The specifications of insect proof net mainly include width,aperture and color.In particular,the aperture of the net is too small and the mesh is too large,which can not play its due effect.If the mesh number is too much and the mesh is too small,it can prevent insects,but the ventilation is not good,resulting in high temperature and excessive shading,which is not conducive to the growth of crops.Generally,22-24 mesh insect net should be selected.In spring and autumn,compared with summer,the temperature is lower and the light is weaker,so white insect net should be selected;in summer,black or silver gray insect prevention net should be selected to give consideration to shading and cooling;in areas where aphids and virus diseases occur seriously,silver grey insect prevention net should be used in order to drive away aphids and prevent virus diseases.
 
  (network map)
 
  Three
 
  Comprehensive supporting measures
 
  In addition to the coverage of insect prevention net,combined with the comprehensive supporting measures such as disease resistant and insect resistant varieties,heat-resistant varieties,pollution-free organic fertilizer,biological pesticides,pollution-free water source,micro spray micro irrigation and other comprehensive supporting measures can achieve better results.
 
  Four
 
  Pest control
 
  The seeds,soil,plastic shed or greenhouse skeleton and frame materials may contain pests and eggs.After covering with insect proof net and before planting crops,it is necessary to carry out pest control treatment on seeds,soil,shed framework and frame materials,which is the key link to ensure the cultivation effect of insect proof net covering,so as to prevent a large number of diseases and insect pests from occurring in the net room and causing serious damage.In addition,some farmers choose thiamethoxam(actay)+azoxystrobin(amicida)+Jiamei bonus 1000 times liquid to drench the roots,which also has a good effect on preventing the outbreak of piercing sucking mouthparts pests.
 
  Five
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